The International Simulation & Gaming Yearbook
Volume 5
- Research into Simulations in Education

V.Ahmed, A.Thorpe and R.McCaffer ‘ MERIT 2’ a construction management simulation
Eugenijus Bagdonas, Irena Patasiene, Vytautas Skvernys From game to success
John Bicheno Fun and games in operations management: running a course with games every week?
Claude Bourlčs TERRITORY: A simulation in biology
JM Bulbeck, JT Boardman and SJ Wingrove ‘SystemiGame - play the game, learn the process’
Benita Cox and Peter Saunders Towards creating a global educational technology culture
Steve Davis Tough choices: the prisoner’s dilemma in the classroom
Marte Fallshore 'Sweet nothings' as a demonstration of sampling distributions of the mean
Brian Farrimond, Sheila Lynch and Marti Harris Using multimedia to present case studies for systems analysis
Sinclair Goodlad Simulating laboratory teaching for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs)
Päivi Haho and Riitta Smeds The Softmatch-method: enterprise transformation through simulation games
Ken Jones Damage caused by simulation/games
Doug Love and Peter Ball Managing an open-ended manufacturing design case study
Mac McCarthy Developing tourism in Erehwon: an interactive case study approach to strategic planning for hospitality management
Bob Matthew and Pete Sayers Group exercises - collaboration or competition?
Scott Miller Educational technology in the making of a crop pest management game
John M Rolfe Acting to plan and planning to act: an initial exercise in major emergency planning and response
David Sharp Entertaining hamming coding with four-letter word mutations
Peter Trim Using the case approach to teach negotiation skills: the potential for a management game
Jamie Villegas Simulation supported industrial training: - a method for increasing competence of people at companies
M.F. Warren, R.J. Soffe, and R.J. Williams Use of off-the-peg business games as a component of large-group learning
Tina Wilson and Denise Whitelock 'Are you who I think you are?' Making friends and playing games in cyberspace'.

Chapter 1 - Towards creating a global educational technology culture
Benita Cox and Peter Saunders

Designers of software for educational games have recently turned their attention to designing games for use over the Internet. This paper explores the need for these designers to be aware of a new set of requirements which emanate from the diversity of cultural and gender backgrounds of the participants involved in playing games over wide area networks. No longer can it be assumed, as was the case when a game was played at a central point, that all participants are from similar cultural backgrounds or, indeed, that they will be of the same gender but that it is likely that the target-audience will be from a wide range of cultural backgrounds and that both male and female participants are likely to be involved. This uncertainty as to the profile of the target participants gives rise to a need for designers to consider what the potential impact of these differences might be on game playing and whether these should be reflected in the design of the game. For example, consideration needs to be given as to whether cultural or gender differences impact on the ways in which participants formulate their game-playing strategy or whether different styles exist in communication and decision making processes and the degree to which these may influence the outcome of the game. Address for correspondence: The Management School, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, 53 Prince’s Gate, London SW7 2PG

Chapter 2 - Damage caused by simulation/games
Ken Jones

Games and simulations are powerful learning tools when used separately. When mixed together into a simulation/game they become powerful agents of personal damage - damaging personal relationships, reputations and causing emotional hurt and distress. Friendships can be broken, professional reputations ruined and such antagonisms can develop that some people never speak to each other again. Facilitators are not only victims but are usually bewildered victims, almost inevitably unaware of what hit them and sometimes not realising that they have been hit. One consequence is that genuine games and genuine simulations get a bad name because of the utter confusion of terminology and methodology. The conclusion is that simulation/games should not be used. What should be done is to (a) clarify the concepts of games and simulations to reveal their incompatibility, (b) explain this to the participants and (c) make whatever design changes are necessary to the materials to remove inconsistencies. Address for correspondence: Ken Jones, 4 Ashdown Lodge, 1c Chepstow Villas, London W11 3EE, Tel: 0171.229.7669.

Chapter 3 - Group exercises - collaboration or competition?
Bob Matthew and Pete Sayers

Over the years we have become increasingly exasperated by group exercises where the groups end up being highly competitive with one another. This usually results in a must do better than them mentality, rather than a what can we learn from this exercise mentality. This led us to reflect on how we designed, managed and ran group exercises. In particular we ended up with some clear ideas about how to design and manage group exercises which implicitly and explicitly require group collaboration for successful completion. One interesting and unexpected result of this design process has been a significant increase in the enthusiasm of the participants and the energy level shown by the groups in the carrying out of such exercises. This paper is an attempt on our part to share our observations on group process, the design process we have adopted and some observations on the effects of running exercises in this way. Address for Correspondence: Dr Bob Matthew, Dept. of Civil & Engineering, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire BD7 1DP

Chapter 4 - ‘MERIT 2’ a construction management simulation
V.Ahmed, A.Thorpe and R.McCaffer

The increase in size and complexity of modern construction projects has encouraged the development of better management training methods for potential construction managers. One such method is the use of simulation and gaming to enable these potential managers to experience the range of typical decisions that senior managers face daily. MERIT 2 (Managing Engineering Resources Involves Team Work) is a construction management simulation which allows up to 1000 teams referred to as companies to operate a construction company for up to 16 periods or quarters, representing 4 trading years. The participants are required to control and manage the direction of their company through inter-related marketing, tendering, overhead allocation, labour and staffing and general financial decisions. The companies operate in a computer-simulated market based on current UK statistics. MERIT was developed at Loughborough University for graduate Civil Engineers working towards chartership and it is run annually by the Institution of Civil Engineering. The leading teams are invited to play the final at Loughborough. So far, about 12,000 participants have played MERIT over the last 7 years. This paper describes the main features of MERIT, the range of decisions to be made, and their implications. The performance indicators which determine the success or failure of each company are highlighted. Finally the benefits gained from such an approach are reported from an opinion survey of past players. Address for Correspondence: The Department of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE1 3TU, E-mail:

Chapter 5 - ‘SystemiGame - play the game, learn the process’
JM Bulbeck, JT Boardman and SJ Wingrove

The Systems Engineering Group at De Montfort University is developing a methodology and diagrammatic representation for mapping business processes (Carr et al, 1992); these we call the 'Boardman Soft Systems Methodology' (Bulbeck and Clegg, 1996) and the Systemigram (Systemic Diagram) respectively. A systemigram is a network of prose and graphics which represent a business process or activity (Sherman et al, 1996). Collaboration with a variety of engineering companies suggests that people are unaware of the extent of their relationship with people in other processes as well as in their own process. The implication of this is that a decision or action taken by one group can have adverse effects on another group in another process. These effects are often unpredictable and undesirable. To help alleviate the problem, the Systems Engineering Group create systemigrams to increase 'shared understanding' within a process. One of the techniques used to educate people about process oriented thinking is by the use of a game called 'SystemiGame'. The 'playing area' of a SystemiGame is a systemigram with some of the key prose removed. The player(s) start with the removed prose (node labels) and the partially complete systemigram. The object of the game is to associate each of the node labels with the corresponding empty node. This helps the players to learn, by trial and error, the relationship of activities and people within a process. SystemiGame has been developed for use in the Microsoft Windows environment. Address for Correspondence: Professor John Boardman, Science and Engineering Research Centre, De Montfort University, Hawthorn Building, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH.

Chapter 6 - The Softmatch-method: enterprise transformation through simulation games
Päivi Haho and Riitta Smeds

This chapter describes the participative Softmatch-method which uses, in a systematic way, customised simulation games to achieve successful business process oriented enterprise transformation. The principles of the Softmatch-method and practical experiences in Finnish case companies are described, and results and experiences are discussed. The method is still in its development and testing phase; the final results and their evaluation will be available at a later stage. The Softmatch-method is composed of the following interactive elements which involve different organisation levels and functions: definition of the scope and objectives based on company strategy, simulation games, team and group work methods, project management methods and training. The participation of employees from the design of the new process to its implementation accomplishes high commitment throughout the whole transition. Softmatch is being developed in an ongoing Finnish-Swiss Eureka research project with participants from Helsinki University of Technology IIA-Research Centre, consulting companies and industry. Address for correspondence: Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Industrial Management, Otakaari 1, 02150 Espoo, Finland.

Chapter 7 - Acting to plan and planning to act: an initial exercise in major emergency planning and response
John M Rolfe

The exercise explores the activities involved in planning for and responding to an emergency. It also attempts to demonstrate the differences between these two functions and the training implications that arise. Address for correspondence: Orchard House, The Thorpe, Hemingford Grey, Cambridgeshire, PE18 9DA, England. (3244 words)

Chapter 8 - From game to success
Eugenijus Bagdonas, Irena Patasiene, Vytautas Skvernys

The methodology of the organisation of learning business basics has been suggested using an existing computer business game. The structure of the business game organisation and input-output forms have been shown in the report. Depending on the given teacher data, created software can be applied for training or for examination. An analysis of the game’s application for first year students of Kaunas University of Technology Faculty of Administration has been presented in the report. The obtained results are compared with the parameters of other known computer business games. Address for correspondence: Department of Service Management, Faculty of Administration, Kaunas University of Technology, Donelaicio 20, Kaunas, 3000, Lithuania. Tel: 370 (7) 201849, Fax: 370 (7) 207232; E-mail: or

Chapter 9 - Simulating laboratory teaching for graduate teaching assistants (GTAs)
Sinclair Goodlad

For many years, postgraduate students and post-doctoral researchers have assisted with the teaching of undergraduates in science laboratories. What is new is that increasing attention is now being given to ensuring that these graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) receive some formal instruction before being let loose on students. For three years, experimental workshops have been offered at the Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, University of London, to address relevant issues. Preliminary research revealed that GTAs main concerns are about their own knowledge of the subjects they teach and about coping with students. This paper describes a simulation exercise developed to assist physics GTAs who have to supervise laboratory teaching. Address for correspondence: Dr. Sinclair Goodlad, Director of the Humanities Programme, Room 440 ME Building, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BX, Fax 0171 594 8759; e-mail

Chapter 10 - Managing an open-ended manufacturing design case study
Doug Love and Peter Ball

This paper presents aspects of novel case study structure for teaching the process of manufacturing system design. The approach used for the case study removes many of the limitations of traditional methods of teaching the design process. It has been used successfully for a number of years and proves to be both enjoyable and valuable to manufacturing engineering students. In particular the method by which the case study is introduced and administered will be described. The approach used is to actively involve students in a design problem. The problem is defined using a modified industrial example and is open-ended in nature. The students must define the boundaries of the problem and seek the necessary information to be able to offer a solution. Address for Correspondence: Dr Peter Ball, Design Manufacture & Engineering Management (DMEM), University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ. Tel: 0141 552 4400 (Ext. 4548); Fax: 0141 552 0557; e-mail: or, Web:

Chapter 11 - Developing tourism in Erehwon: an interactive case study approach to strategic planning for hospitality management
Mac McCarthy

This chapter outlines an interactive case study simulation exercise designed to teach the basic principles of strategic planning to final year students on the Hospitality Management programme at the University of Central Lancashire. The design encourages groups to think and act strategically, first providing them with basic information and then giving additional information as the simulation progresses. Reflection is encouraged on both the process and the difficulties involved. The discussion includes the reflective problem-solving model that informs the teaching and learning methodology. Address for correspondence: Mac McCarthy, Dept. of Hospitality and Tourism, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire. Tel: 01772 893900.

Chapter 12 - Educational technology in the making of a crop pest management game
Scott Miller

The Centre for CBL in Land Use and Environmental Sciences (CLUES) has found that a systematic method is vital for the production of good computer-assisted learning (CAL) courseware. The development protocol for courseware at CLUES provides a series of discrete stages. The conclusions drawn following evaluation of one stage results are used to improve the next iteration of the courseware. As the process continues, the package steadily approaches the goal - of achieving the desired learning outcomes when embedded within a course. This systematic approach to CAL courseware development follows the work of Rowntree (1982). The development of the CLUES module Beet is described as an example of this process. ‘Beet - a crop pest and disease management game’ is a (CAL) module presented as a simulation game. A simulation was adopted because it is the only way to provide students with an alternative to the kind of experience that they can acquire through the practical management of a beet crop. A comprehensive manual accompanies the CAL module. It provides advice on how to use Beet in a course, explains the underlying model, and details successful playing strategies. Address for Correspondence: Scott Miller, Technology Based Learning Specialist, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ.

Chapter 13 - Fun and games in operations management: running a course with games every week?
John Bicheno

In common, it seems, with several undergraduate business courses, many students at the University of Buckingham are not initially interested in Operations Management. Several approaches can be adopted, ranging from ‘just do it; it's good for you!’ to ‘we will show you how much fun operations can be’. Over eight years at Buckingham, Operations Management has evolved from the former but now attempts the latter. A prime tool, but not the only tool, for this has been games. The paper will briefly describe the games used (including the chain game, a layout game, an MRP game, various opt games, a JIT game, quality games, supplier partnership, and a business process reengineering game), and mention the fun and the failures. Over the eight year period, class sizes have increased which has made the use of games more difficult, but has lead to the use of some innovations, such as parallel games and computer games which has met with mixed success. The overall experience will be evaluated. The author has also run many of the same games in industry, and a comparison with the industrial experiences will be given. Generally, games seem to work better where there is a real situation to refer back to leading to the desirability to combine games with other activities such as visits. Address for correspondence: School of Management, University of Buckingham, Buckingham MK18 1EG. Tel. & Fax: 01280 815023; e-mail:

Chapter 14 - Using multimedia to present case studies for systems analysis
Brian Farrimond, Sheila Lynch and Marti Harris

Case studies form an important and valued resource in teaching and learning, traditionally being presented as text, with the possible addition of simple role playing. The advancement of multimedia techniques provides us with the opportunity to extend this approach to teaching and learning and we propose that current paper based case studies be transformed into interactive multimedia simulations to capture the students imagination and consequently enrich student learning. The following paper relates research in the development of Interactive Case Study Simulations (ICSS), together with a case study language (CSL), to enable the production of multimedia case study scenarios for students of System Analysis. The goal of the interactive case study is not to teach or argue the student towards a specific goal but to provide a context in which to explore the ‘real’ world. The CSL environment includes a mark-up language (CSL), a scene librarian and a text editor to enable the user to create case study scenarios containing scenes, people and documents using images, video clips, sound clips and text. Research continues at Liverpool Hope with the study of VR techniques to aid in the realism of the case studies, and the addition of a knowledge based system to add ‘intelligence’ to the actors in the case study. Suggested future directions for ICSS involve the use of simulations via the Internet or CD ROM for applications in distance learning. Address for correspondence: Brian Farrimond, Sheila Lynch and Marti Harris, Liverpool Hope University College, Woolton Road, Liverpool, L16 8ND.

Chapter 15 - Simulation supported industrial training: - a method for increasing competence of people at companies
Jamie Villegas

The study conducted as part of a research project at Linköping University indicates that simulation games are useful tools for industrial training, and may probably be more effective for many purposes than other methods, particularly in complex areas such as production management. However, this research strongly indicates that the best results are achieved when simulation games are used in conjunction with other, traditional learning methods. One of the contributions of this research project consists of the development and evaluation of a training method which helps participants to better understand their own problems at the company with the help of computer-based simulation games. The training method, SSIT - Simulation Supported Industrial Training- has the following main characteristics which make it unique: · The simulation games are tailor-made to the participants’ specific problems. · The training is carried out directly at the work place. · The training is based on the execution of a number of simulation games which successively illustrate the problems of the company. · The training method combines the work on the simulation games with other traditional types of learning techniques such as theoretical instruction and group discussions. · The training promotes not only the participants’ individual learning, but also the organisational learning process. The goal of this paper is to present the main ideas which have been helped in the creation of the SSIT method and to describe its main characteristics, see for more detailed information Villegas(1996). Address for correspondence: Linköping University, 58183, IDA-EIS, Linkoping, Sweden. Tel: 013 282539; Fax: 013 282666; For more information check

Chapter 16 - Use of off-the-peg business games as a component of large-group learning
M.F. Warren, R.J. Soffe, and R.J. Williams

During 1991 concerns about rising numbers led to an experiment with a large first-year degree module in financial management, comprising students from a range of rural-based programmes, most of whom had no intrinsic interest in the topic. An off-the-peg game was used as the central means of learning, supported by lectures, computer-assisted learning, fortnightly tests, and surgeries. Annual evaluations of student perceptions, coupled with qualitative and quantitative outcomes of assessments, show the strategy to have been highly successful, with a high quality of learning experienced by students despite numbers ranging from 130 to over 200 (40 companies). The fact that the game is based on a manufacturing business, rather than rural land-using, gave no difficulty. Staff enjoy being involved with a more highly-motivated student group, although reductions in formal contact time are balanced by other pressures. A more complex game was subsequently used with third-year students in a module which had previously been based on ‘live’ case studies, allowing students to bring together various aspects of their managerial learning. Over 1000 students have now taken this module, and reactions have been extremely positive - far more so than when real businesses were used. Future developments envisaged include incorporation of different types of game into other modules, to create a ‘game continuum’ throughout the business pathway; involvement of teams from universities overseas; and development of learning support materials on a WWW server. Address for correspondence: Seale-Hayne Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Land Use, University of Plymouth, Newton Abbot. Devon, TQ12 6NQ. Tel: 01626 325673; Fax: 01626 325657; email:; WWW:

Chapter 17 - 'Are you who I think you are?' Making friends and playing games in cyberspace'.
Tina Wilson and Denise Whitelock

The adoption of fun environment in computer-mediated communication (CMC) is being considered by many institutions worldwide to overcome the problems of isolation associated with distance education and training courses. M205-STILE (Students’ and Teachers’ Integrated Learning Environment) is one such project that used a CMC environment with 110 distance learning students and nine tutors throughout the UK and Europe. The participants were online with conferencing and WWW facilities for a period of 10 months from February to November 1995. The provision of these online facilities put the students in touch with other students and their tutor. In order to find out what essential characteristics make a CMC enjoyable, we monitored the students’ online activities and reactions within the environment. The data includes a case study. This chapter reports on how remote and urban students used the online conferencing system to make friends and find like-minded colleagues to work with. Our results suggest that having fun and conveying a sense of humour are important factors in the formation of peer groups for online learning and therefore they are important factors in the design of interactive online environments for conferencing and WWW. Address for correspondence: Tina Wilson, Centre for Educational Software, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA. Tel: 01908 654026; e-mail Denise Whitelock, Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA; e-mail:

Chapter 18 - TERRITORY: A simulation in biology
Claude Bourlčs

The game TERRITORY is designed for use with students following introductory courses in areas of biology such as animal behavior, ecology, evolution and population genetics. It uses packs of ordinary playing cards and game counters. Groups of up to 60 students can play. Address for correspondence: GERSAFE-IPSA-UCO, BP 808, 49008, F 49008 Angers Cedex 01, France.

Chapter 19 - Tough choices: the prisoner’s dilemma in the classroom
Steve Davis

In this chapter I show how participants in a series of activities can explore for themselves the strategies they employ when they have to solve complex problems. The vehicle for these problems is the well-known Prisoner’s Dilemma - a scenario that examines, in detail, the intractable nature of interpersonal relationships, and the complications attendant on the choice between self-interest and the common good. The problem simulations that I derive from the Prisoner’s Dilemma are content-free, are very easy to explain and operate, and can be handled by individuals at their own level of analysis and complexity. This allows them to be used with a wide range of age groups and ability levels. I have used them in this way on many occasions and I comment on the sort of outcomes that can be expected from them, and the sorts of discussion that can be engendered. I also endeavour to set the exercises in context, with suggestions about lead-in and follow-up work. The whole provides a course of study that allows an in-depth, hands-on consideration of tough choices. The activities themselves, which are described in detail, are all designed to occupy class sizes, and are of two main types. First there are small group activities - bead games - where the class is divided into a series of individual contests. Second, there are whole-class activities, where everyone participates in one large decision-making contest. The beauty of using the Prisoner’s Dilemma as a teaching ploy is that its matrix representation easily allows the development of further simulations. The ways that these, and other non-zero-sum matrix games, can be used as teaching devices is discussed at the end of the chapter. I have found the whole set of activities rewarding and enjoyable for both myself and my students. This chapter gives me the opportunity to present my findings, and convey my enthusiasm for this flexible, simple, yet all-embracing approach to problem-solving. Address for correspondence: Sydney Smith School, First Lane, Anlaby, Hull HU10 6UU. Tel: 01482 652622; Fax: 01482 651690.

Chapter 20 - 'Sweet nothings' as a demonstration of sampling distributions of the mean
Marte Fallshore

In order to demonstrate the difficult concept of sampling distributions and the logic of hypothesis testing. I begin each term with students taking samples (5 samples with n = 5 and 5 samples with n = 10) from a population of scores. They are told that the scores constitute a population of 'sweet nothing' scores (scores on how skilled a particular population is at whispering sweet nothings in their sweetheart's ear). They actually work with the samples in various exercises throughout the term, but the most impressive demonstration comes when we speak of sampling distributions. At this point, I have them compute the mean and standard deviation of the means of each sample; this gives them hands-on experience at what we mean by 'mean of means' and 'standard deviation of means'. In class we discuss which samples have less variance (ie, the samples with n = 10) and why, and what the shape of the distributions of hundreds of samples of n = 5 and n = 10 would look like. Finally, I show them what the population looks like (skew = 83) and what the sampling distributions of the mean for 460 samples of n = 5 (skew = .485) and n = 10 (skew = .331) look like. I have actually received 'oohs' and 'ahhs' for this demonstration! Beginning statistics students have great difficulty understanding many of the concepts discussed in a typical introductory statistics class. In fact, even graduate students have difficulty with many fundamental concepts necessary for full understanding of statistics ideas (Mendez & Pellegrino, 1990). There are many areas of misunderstanding in statistics (eg, Kissane, 1991; Smith, 1977) which would take a whole book to address sufficiently. In the present paper, I will discuss an approach I take when addressing one critical area: sampling distributions and the logic that underlies hypothesis testing. That is, why can we use just one sample to make inferences about a population? What are the basic assumptions that allow us to make inferences? How are the basic assumptions related to each other in order to allow us to make probability statements? What are probability statements in the first place? The answers to these questions are important because they underlie all of inferential statistics and inferential statistics is a powerful tool in most, if not all, sciences. It therefore behooves students to understand inferential statistics in order to critically assess their own and others' work. Inferential statistics involves many different, yet intricately interconnected concepts. Because of this interrelatedness, it is difficult to determine just where an explanation of the logic of hypothesis testing begins. That is, does it begin with the first lecture that introduces sampling distributions? Or does it begin with probability? Or perhaps with the very definition of data? Part of the problem of where to begin comes from the interrelatedness mentioned above and from the terminology itself. Some names for concepts have common usage so students are familiar with the words and possibly some aspects of their definitions, but not the specific meaning used with regard to statistics (eg, population, sample, average, or probability). Other concepts are highly theoretical and abstract and so are difficult for beginning students to find real world connections to (eg, standard normal curve, standard deviation and variance, probability distribution). In addition, statistics also involves concepts and viewpoints rarely, if ever, previously encountered by students (eg, probability statements, arbitrary cutoffs (µ), double negatives (reject the hypothesis that there is no effect, so conclude that there is an effect), indirect proof, theoretical distributions, and recursive calculations (eg, means of means). In my view, an explanation of hypothesis testing begins on the first day of class and continues to mid-term. It begins on the first day because, for example, if the students do not understand what descriptive statistics are, they certainly will not understand inferential statistics. In the present paper, I will first explain what I mean by understanding the logic of hypothesis testing. I will then detail the demonstration of sampling distributions of the mean I use. Address for correspondence: Marte Fallshore, Behavioral Science Dept, Utah Valley, state College, Orem, UT 84058; e-mail:

Chapter 21- Entertaining hamming coding with four-letter word mutations
David Sharp

This paper describes a game used by the author to help teach Hamming coding to second year networks and communications students on the Imperial College BEng and MEng degrees in computing. The game gives the students practise in encoding and decoding messages using Hamming codes. When computers communicate with each other over a network, text is usually sent using a unique 7-bit binary code for each letter of the alphabet. For example the letter A is sent as the binary sequence 100001 and the letter C is sent as the binary sequence 100011. As a result of noise on the communication link it is possible for one or more bits to be corrupted during transmission. For example if an A was sent and the second bit from the right hand side was corrupted from 0 to 1 the A would be received as a C by mistake. This sort of error is common on teletext pages in areas of poor television reception. Hamming coding is a method of adding extra bits to each letter so that if a one bit error occurs the extra bits can indicate which bit is in error. The error can then be corrected by inverting the affected bit. To practise Hamming coding, teams of four students are invited to send Hamming-coded four letter words to each other, with one student coding each letter. The students choose which bits of their word get corrupted during transmission. The corruption of course results in another four letter word being received. For example the word LEGO can be corrupted to the word DUCK by introducing appropriate one-bit errors in the code for each of the letters. By sending extra Hamming-encoded error-correction bits with each letter, it becomes possible for the receiving team to deduce that although they received the word DUCK, it should in fact have been the word LEGO. With an appropriate list of how errors in each of the bits affect the letter that is sent, many entertaining four letter word mutations are possible. Students have found the exercise to be a highly entertaining and useful way of practising Hamming coding. A prize is awarded for the best four letter mutation that is correctly sent and received. Address for correspondence: Dr David Sharp, Dept. of Computing, Imperial College, 180 Queen's Gate, London SW7 2BZ. Tel: 0171 594 8335; e-mail

Chapter 22 - Using the case approach to teach negotiation skills: the potential for a management game
Peter Trim

Negotiation is a complex subject which hardly ever features in a postgraduate business school programme. This is surprising when one takes into account the importance of face-to-face discussions and the fact that in a global market, characterised by a shrinking supplier base, longer lead times and reduced product life cycles; the need for business combination arrangements becomes both obvious and in some cases essential if an organisation is to survive in an ever turbulent business environment. This paper addresses a number of issues, mainly: how the case method can be used to produce reasonably complex teaching material to be used for teaching negotiation and what factors designers of games should take into account when turning a negotiation case exercise into a management game. Address for correspondence: Dr Peter R J Trim, Lecturer in Management, Department of Management and Business Studies, Birkbeck College, University of London, 7-15 Gresse Street, London W1P 2LL.

Copyright 1999 SAGSET

Last Updated 11/10/1999

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